In the second part of our series you will learn everything for quoting and bibliography of chores. In addition, we tell you everything about the formal structure of a scientific paper.

The annoying literature research for the housework is done and you have already worked out the relevant literature. Congratulations!!! This is already a big step. Now it’s about the thoughts on paper. But how was that again with the quotes and how do you formally build a scientific paper?

Citation and bibliography in chores

The highest principle of scientific housework is unity. Anyone who bibliographs differently or constructs footnotes differently has a fat minus point with his lecturer from the outset.

Quotes prove what you claim. Direct quotes should be quoted. It is important that you take the text verbatim, i. also errors in the original are taken over! However, you should not write any mistakes in the citation yourself, so it’s best to look twice, that everything is really right.

Quote in footnotes at chores

Basically, everything that does not come from yourself and you’ve taken somewhere directly or indirectly, you have to mark by footnotes, so synonymous citation. Otherwise, your housework quickly becomes suspected of mental theft (plagiarism). Incidentally, you do not have to translate foreign language quotes.

It is important that you really name the literature mentioned in your thesis in the footnotes. Although many think it’s bad to have many footnotes because it looks like you’ve just taken over everything. In reality, however, the opposite is the case. As a small clue: each page should have at least three footnotes.

When you cite a work for the first time, you must first complete the bibliography of the book in the footnote, as in the bibliography (for detailed bibliography citation rules, see below):

  • Last name, first name: title. Subtitles, edition, location (publisher), year.
  • Example of quoting monographs in a footnote at first mention:
  • Böge, Alfred: Manual Mechanical Engineering. Fundamentals and Applications of Mechanical Engineering, 19th Edition, Wiesbaden, 2008, p. 122.

With each further mention then the short title suffices with appropriate page indication. Subtitle, edition, place of publication and date are therefore omitted:

  • Cf.: surname, first name: short title, s ..
  • Example of quoting short titles with page numbers in a footnote:
  • See: Böge, Alfred: Handbuch Maschinenbau, p. 122.

TIP: If you make content insertions for quotations (whether in the body text or in footnotes), these are placed in square brackets [], omissions are noted by […].

Abbreviations are allowed in the footnotes and bibliographies insofar as they are common abbreviations of journals, e.g. there are several places of publication (then simply write (inter alia)) or abbreviate the first name of the authors consistently as an initial.

Citation rules for the bibliography of a term paper (= bibliography)

The scientific citation or bibliography in the bibliography follows strict rules, although these often vary from university to university, from study course to course or even from lecturer to lecturer.

Therefore, when bibliography is usually worth a short request to the lecturer, which Bibliographierweisen is favored. Common patterns for proper citation in study are:

Citation rules for monographs:

Last name, first name: title. Subtitles, edition, location (publisher), year.

Example of the scientific citation of monographs:

Wöhe, Günter / Döring, Ulrich / Brösel, Gerrit: Introduction to General Business Administration, 26th edition, Vahlen, 2016.

Citation rules for essays:

Last name, first name: article title. Subtitles, in: Last name, First name (Hrsg.): Title. Subtitles, Edition, Location (Publisher), Year, S. x-y.

Example of the scientific citation of essays:

Schneider, Birgit: The art-silk girls. Test and Leitbilder of early television, in: Andriopoulos, Stefan / Dotzler, Bernhard J. (ed.): 1929. Contributions to the archeology of the media, Frankfurt am Main, 2002, pp. 54-79.

Citation rules for essays in anthologies:

Surname, first name: essay title, in: journal title, annual volume number (year), p. X-y.

Example for the scientific quotation of essays in edited volumes:

Arnheim, Rudolf: New Objectivity and Old Stupidity, in: Die Weltbühne (Berlin), No. 15, 23 rd, 12.4.1927, pp. 591-592.

Citation rules for Internet sources:

Surname, first name: Article title of the Internet contribution, under Link (retrieved on the day. Month.year).

Example of scientific citation of Internet sources:

Geisler, Linus S .: Medicine of the Apparition? Virtual Reality and Medicine, at (accessed 11.01.2018).

Even if you can not find a place or year for one of the works you use, the bibliography must not be incomplete. In such a case you help yourself with o.O. (= without location) or o.J. (= without year). Your footnotes contain bibliographic information as well as additional information that does not fit into the main text (scientific references to quoted literature, quotes that should not disturb the flow of text, suggestions, evidence, hints, definitions, etc.).

The formal structure of a housework:

A housework is printed on one side in DIN A4 format. Unless otherwise required, when formatting scientific papers you choose font size 12 (for footnotes and longer quotes size 10).

The font is handled differently, but if you do not specify it, you should use Times New Roman or Arial. As a line spacing usually 1.5 is desired. Important: the housework must be in block justification. As mentioned above, the highest principle is unity, i. Citation and bibliography are done according to an identical scheme.

Components of a scientific homework:

1. Cover Page

The cover page is the first thing your instructor sees of a housework, so you should be careful here, even if the front page is “only” informative. Unless compulsory information is required, the cover sheet is divided into three parts. The title of the paper is in the middle of the sheet and is printed in bold and large. In the upper third are all information about the university, institute, event and semester. The name of the lecturer is also noted in the upper part of the cover page. In the lower third of the cover sheet are all information to the author. These include name, address, telephone number, e-mail address and student number.

Important: the cover sheet does not get a page number!

You can download a pattern for the cover page of a housework during your studies here for free.

2. Table of contents

The table of contents is labeled with your various bullet points. The individual chapters are listed with numbers / letters (I; I.1 …) as well as page numbers. In principle, you can orientate yourself by the classical classification: introduction, main part and conclusion. The table of contents itself, like the cover sheet, is not listed here, but the overview starts with the text. The main part is differentiated the most. You should create a meaningful structure (chronology, subsections, sub-items), which reveals a certain logic and already underpins your theses. Concise and meaningfulness are the keys to success here.

3. Main text with footnotes

The main text of a scientific paper includes introduction, body and conclusion and is structured as indicated in the table of contents. For clarity and easier traceability, you use paragraphs that distinguish individual sub-points. Your footnotes are numbered and highlighted below with a hyphen from the main text (this makes the word processor automatic). The number in the text referring to the respective footnote must be superscript in smaller font size. In principle, footnotes are added exactly where they belong (by name, term, at the end of the sentence or quotation).

4. Annex

If you need an attachment, insert your used illustrations, diagrams, quotes, maps etc. here. The individual parts of the Annex are numbered consecutively. In the text you will then refer to the corresponding number of the appendix in the footnotes.

5. Source and bibliography

Something that should never and under no circumstances be missing in a scientific paper in the study: the (source and) bibliography. Here you will alphabetically list all the literature you have used. If you have used several works / essays by an author, then these are sorted by the year of publication. Incidentally, it’s fine if you did not use the complete bibliography on your topic. Since the usual chores have only a scale of 10-20 pages, this would be pretty much required. However, it is important that you have dealt with the most important literature on the subject and you perform here.

6. If necessary: ​​List of abbreviations

A list of abbreviations only makes sense if you have used many unusual abbreviations. For common abbreviations like u.a., etc. or those relevant journals you do not need to create a separate list of abbreviations. Short forms of work titles you declare when you first name in the text in the respective footnote.

7. Affidavit

For a normal housework is not always required to add a self-declaration. Nevertheless, it is safer, because you declare that you have written your work independently and only with the works specified in the source and bibliography.

Here is a short pattern for a self-declaration in a housework:

I hereby assure, [name, first name, matriculation], that I have independently written the present paper on the subject [subject name (see cover page)] and that I have not used sources other than those specified. All citations have been marked.

You then provide this explanation with place / date and sign those by hand.

TIP: Everything about the content of a housework work can be found in our 3rd part of “The scientific housework.”

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